### CiCC

There are currently 142 CiCC in this directory beginning with the letter D.

D

**D1**

A designation or identifier used to represent a specific variable, factor, or category in various contexts.

**DACH**

Deutsche Akkreditierungsstelle Chemie GmbH, Frankfurt. The accreditation assignments were combined in a new structure in the DAkkS as Germanys National Accreditation Body as of January 1, 2010. The DACH entered the DAkkS via the DGA.

**Daily Standup**

A short, regular meeting in agile or Scrum methodologies where team members discuss progress, plans, and impediments.

**DAkkS**

Deutsche Akkreditierungsstelle GmbH, Berlin. Germanys National Accreditation Body. The organization started its activities on January 1, 2010 and bundles all accreditation assignments in Germany. www.dakks.de

**DAP**

1. Deming Application Prize. 2. Deutsches Akkreditierungssystem für Prüfwesen GmbH, Berlin. The accreditation assignments were combined in a new structure in the DAkkS as Germanys national accreditation body as of January 1, 2010. The DAP entered the DAkkS via the DGA. www.dakks.de

**DAR**

Deutscher Akkreditierungsrat. The obligations for monitoring were moved to the DAkkS as of January 1, 2010.

**DASET**

Deutsche Akkreditierungsstelle Stahlbau und Energietechnik, Düsseldorf. The accreditation assignments were combined in a new structure in the DAkkS as Germanys national accreditation body as of January 1, 2010.

**DASMIN**

Deutsche Akkreditierungsstelle Mineralöl GmbH, Hamburg. The accreditation assignments were combined in a new structure in the DAkkS as Germanys national accreditation body as of January 1, 2010.

**Data**

Data: A set of collected facts. There are two basic kinds of numerical data: measured or variable data, such as 16 ounces, 4 miles and 0.75 inches; and counted or attribute data, such as 162 defects.

**Data and Fitted Means**

Statistical terms referring to observed data values and corresponding predicted or fitted mean values from a model.

**Data collection and analysis**

Data collection and analysis: The process to determine what data are to be collected, how the data are collected and how the data are to be analyzed.

**Data collection and analysis tools**

Data collection and analysis tools: A set of tools that help with data collection and analysis. These tools include check sheets, spreadsheets, histograms, trend charts and control charts.

**Data Entry Arrow**

Symbol or indicator used in data flow diagrams or process maps, representing the entry or input of data into a system.

**Data Label**

Identifier or descriptor attached to a data point or element in a graph, chart, or visualization, providing additional information.

**Data Storage File Formats**

Structures or standards specifying how data is organized and stored within files or databases.

**Data Transformation**

Process of converting or modifying data from one format, structure, or representation to another for analysis or storage.

**Data Type**

Classification or categorization of data based on its nature, format, or characteristics (e.g., numeric, text, date).

**Date from Text DATE**

In programming or data processing, a function or method to extract or convert date information from textual data.

**DATech**

Deutsche Akkreditierungsstelle für Technik, Frankfurt. The accreditation assignments were combined in a new structure in the DAkkS as Germanys national accreditation body as of January 1, 2010.

**DAU**

Deutsche Akkreditierungs- und Zulassungsgesellschaft für Umweltgutachter mbH, Bonn. The accreditation assignments were combined in a new structure in the DAkkS as Germanys national accreditation body as of January 1, 2010.

**DDE**

Dynamic Data Exchange: Mechanism allowing applications to share data or communicate in real-time within a Windows environment.

**Decimal Separator**

Symbol or character used to separate the integer part from the fractional part in decimal numbers (e.g., period or comma).

**Decision making**

Decision making: The thought process of selecting a choice from the available options.

**Decision matrix**

Decision matrix: A matrix teams use to evaluate problems or possible solutions. For example, a team might draw a matrix to evaluate possible solutions, listing them in the far-left vertical column. Next, the team selects criteria to rate the possible solutions, writing them across the top row. Then, each possible solution is rated on a scale of 1 to 5 for each criterion, and the rating is recorded in the corresponding grid. Finally, the ratings of all the criteria for each possible solution are added to determine its total score. The total score is then used to help decide which solution deserves the most attention.

**Decomposed T Squared Value**

Resulting value or statistic after performing decomposition on T-squared values in multivariate analysis.

**Decomposition Multiplicative Model**

Statistical model used to decompose or break down complex patterns or relationships into simpler components in data analysis.

**Defect**

Defect: A products or services nonfulfillment of an intended requirement or reasonable expectation for use, including safety considerations. There are four classes of defects: class 1, very serious, leads directly to severe injury or catastrophic economic loss; class 2, serious, leads directly to significant injury or significant economic loss; class 3, major, is related to major problems with respect to intended normal or reasonably foreseeable use; and class 4, minor, is related to minor problems with respect to intended normal or reasonably foreseeable use. Also see blemish, imperfection and nonconformity.

**Defect Opportunity**

A chance or opportunity for a defect to occur in a product or process, often used in Six Sigma methodologies.

**Defect per Unit (DPU)**

A unit of measurement representing the number of defects identified in a single unit or item in a process or product.

**Defective**

Defective: A defective unit; a unit of product that contains one or more defects with respect to the quality characteristic(s) under consideration.

**Defects and Defectives**

Terms used in quality control to refer to identified flaws or imperfections (defects) and units containing defects (defectives).

**Defects per Million Opportunities (DPMO)**

A unit of measurement in Six Sigma, representing the number of defects per million opportunities.

**Define**

The initial phase in problem-solving methodologies or project management, involving defining objectives and scope.

**Define Phase**

The initial phase in problem-solving methodologies or project management, involving defining objectives and scope.

**Defining Relation**

In database management or mathematics, a relationship defining or constraining the values or behavior of other elements.

**Degree of Lattice**

A mathematical term referring to the properties or characteristics of lattices in algebraic structures.

**Degrees of Freedom**

The number of independent observations or parameters in a statistical model, influencing variability and model flexibility.

**Delighter**

Delighter: A feature of a product or service that a customer does not expect to receive but that gives pleasure to the customer when received. Also called an exciter.

**Deliverables**

Tangible or intangible outcomes or products produced and delivered as part of a project or assignment.

**Delivery inspection**

Acceptance inspection that is performed before a product is delivered. It is used to prove that the requirements or technical terms of delivery have meet fulfilled. This inspection can also be conducted at the same time as the final inspection. The contractor is responsible for the delivery inspection (as far as no agreements to the contrary have been reached). This can be either an internal or external contractor. (On the basis of DIN 55350-17)

**Delphi method**

Systematic questioning procedure that comprises several steps. This method is used to allow a better assessment of trends, technical developments or, for example, future events.

**Delta**

A symbol representing change or difference between two values, often used in mathematical equations or models.

**Delta Beta**

A statistical measure or coefficient indicating the effect or impact of a variable on another variable in a regression model.

**Delta Beta Standardized**

A standardized form of the Delta Beta coefficient, representing the standardized effect size in regression analysis.

**Delta Chi Square**

A statistical measure or test statistic indicating the difference or change in chi-square values in hypothesis testing or analysis.

**Delta Deviance**

A measure of deviance or difference between two models or statistical fits in regression or modeling.

**Demand Variability**

Fluctuations or variations in demand for products or services over a specific period, affecting inventory and production planning.

**Demerit chart**

Demerit chart: A control chart for evaluating a process in terms of a demerit (or quality score); in other words, a weighted sum of counts of various classified nonconformities.

**Deming**

The American William Edwards Deming (1900 1993) was one of the thinkers and significant figures in quality science. His work focused primarily on the 14-point management program and the principle of continual improvement.

**Deming cycle**

Deming cycle: Another term for the plan-do-study-act cycle. Walter Shewhart created it (calling it the plan-do-check-act cycle), but W. Edwards Deming popularized it, calling it plan-do-study-act. Also see plan-do-check-act cycle."

**Demonstration requirement**

Requirement for demonstration of the implementation of management elements with respect to the customer or the client in the case of a contractual agreement, or with respect to a competent body in the case of legal requirement. Note: Demonstration requirements result from the fact that the quality of complex products cannot be determined by an incoming inspection alone. (DGQ Volume 11-04:2009)

**Dendrogram**

A tree-like diagram representing hierarchical relationships or clustering in data analysis, often used in clustering algorithms.

**Dependability**

Dependability: The degree to which a product is operable and capable of performing its required function at any randomly chosen time during its specified operating time, provided that the product is available at the start of that period. (Nonoperation related influences are not included.) Dependability can be expressed by the ratio: time available / (time available + time required).

**Dependability requirement**

Part of the quality requirement with respect to the behavior of a unit in terms of its dependability during or after stipulated time spans under stipulated use conditions. (On the basis of DIN 55350-11)

**Dependency**

Relationship or reliance between two or more variables or entities, where changes in one affect the other(s).

**Deployment**

Deployment: Dispersion, dissemination, broadcasting or spreading communication throughout an organization, downward and laterally. Also see cascading.

**Descriptive and Inferential Statistics**

Statistical methods: Descriptive analyzes and summarizes data, while inferential draws conclusions or predictions from data samples.

**Design and development**

Transforming processes that turn requirements into specified characteristics or into the specification of a product, process or system. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)

**Design for Six Sigma**

An approach integrating Six Sigma principles into product or process design to achieve high-quality results from the beginning.

**Design Generator**

Tool or software generating various experimental designs or plans for conducting studies or experiments.

**Design Matrix**

A matrix or table indicating the arrangement or configuration of factors or variables in experimental designs.

**Design Matrix General Regression**

Design matrix used in regression analysis involving multiple variables, specifying their arrangement and relationships in the model.

**Design of experiments (DoE)**

Design of experiments (DoE): A branch of applied statistics dealing with planning, conducting, analyzing and interpreting controlled tests to evaluate the factors that control the value of a parameter or group of parameters.

**Design Points Factorial Design**

Specific settings or combinations of factors used in factorial experimental designs to conduct experiments.

**Design Points Mixture Design**

Specific settings or combinations of factors used in mixture experimental designs to conduct experiments.

**Design Points Response Surface Design**

Specific settings or combinations of factors used in response surface experimental designs to conduct experiments.

**Design Resolution**

In experimental design, the minimum detectable effect size that the design can identify or distinguish.

**Design review**

Examination of a preliminary design from quality points of view. (On the basis of DIN 55350-17)

**Design test**

Systematic examination of a design and all partial outcomes. The objective is to check if the quality requirements are fulfilled. This test must be documented.

**Designed Experiment**

An experiment planned or structured to investigate the effects of various factors or variables on a system or process.

**Desired value**

Value of a quantitative characteristic. This characteristics actual values should differ from the desired value as little as possible. (On the basis of DIN 55350-12)

**Destructive Testing**

Testing or analysis that renders the tested item unusable or alters its state, often performed to evaluate material strength or quality.

**Determination**

Activity for identifying one or more characteristics (and their characteristic values). (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)

**Development Team**

A group of individuals collaborating and working together on projects or tasks related to product or process development.

**Deviance Residuals**

Residuals used in assessing goodness of fit in statistical models, indicating the difference between observed and predicted values.

**Deviation**

Deviation: In numerical data sets, the difference or distance of an individual observation or data value from the center point (often the mean) of the set distribution.

**Deviation permit**

Permission to deviate from the requirements originally placed on a product. This permission is granted before the product realization. It is normally limited to a certain quantity of a product or for a certain time span and for a certain use. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015).

**DFA**

Design for Assembly. Product design and development with ease of assembly considerations. (On the basis of IATF 16949:2016)

**DFM**

Design for Manufacturing. Product design and process planning with a view to easy, economical manufacturing. (On the basis of IATF 16949:2016)

**DFM / A**

Design for Manufacturability and Assembly: Methodologies optimizing product designs for efficient manufacturing and assembly processes.

**DFMA**

Design for Manufacturing and Assembly. Development and design in line with both DFM and DFA. (On the basis of IATF 16949:2016)

**DFSS**

Design for Six Sigma. Six Sigma is applied as a tool both for existing processes and for processes that are to be created for the first time. The objective is to build up a process with Six Sigma capability ahead of time.

**DGA**

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Akkreditierung mbH, Frankfurt. The DGA was created on September 14, 2009 by the merger of the Deutsche Akkreditierungsstelle Chemie (DACH), the Trägergemeinschaft für Akkreditierung (TGA) and the Deutsches Akkreditierungssystem Prüfwesen. The organization became a part of the new Deutsche Akkreditierungsstelle DAkkS effective as of January 1, 2010.

**DGWK**

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Warenkennzeichnung. DGWK was established in 1972 and today is called DINCERTCO Gesellschaft zur Konformitätsbewertung mbH, Berlin. www.dincertco.de

**Diagnosis**

Diagnosis: The activity of discovering the cause(s) of quality deficiencies; the process of investigating symptoms, collecting and analyzing data, and conducting experiments to test theories to determine the root cause(s) of deficiencies.

**Diagnostic journey and remedial journey**

Diagnostic journey and remedial journey: A two-phase investigation used by teams to solve chronic quality problems. In the first phase, the diagnostic journey, the team journeys from the symptom of a chronic problem to its cause. In the second phase, the remedial journey, the team journeys from the cause to its remedy

**Difference Power and Sample Size**

Calculations or considerations involving statistical power and sample size to detect differences between groups or populations.

**Differences**

Variances or distinctions between entities, variables, or groups often measured or analyzed in statistical or comparative studies.

**Discrete and Continuous Variables**

Different types of variables: Discrete take distinct values, while continuous can take any value within a range.

**Discrete characteristic**

Quantitative characteristic with a finite number or countably infinite number of forms. (On the basis of DIN 55350-12)

**Discrete Distribution**

A probability distribution describing outcomes with distinct values or categories, like binomial or Poisson distributions.

**Discrimination threshold**

Smallest change in an input value that can still be perceived by a measuring instrument.

**Dispersion (also called variability)**

Qualitative term for the deviation behavior of characteristic values.

**Distances from x Model PLS**

Distances indicating the relationships between predictor variables and the model in Partial Least Squares regression.

**Distances from y Model PLS**

Distances indicating the relationships between response variables and the model in Partial Least Squares regression.

**Distribution Fit Line**

A line representing the best-fit or estimated distribution of data points on a graph or visualization.

**DITR**

Deutsches Informationszentrum für Technische Regeln in the DIN. The DITR database contains bibliographical identification of around 300 sets of regulations.

**DKD**

Deutscher Kalibrierdienst, Braunschweig. The accreditation assignments were combined in a new structure in the DAkkS as Germanys national accreditation body.

**DMADV**

DMADV: A data driven quality strategy for designing products and processes, it is an integral part of a Six Sigma quality initiative. It consists of five interconnected phases: define, measure, analyze, design and verify.

**DMAIC**

DMAIC: A data driven quality strategy for improving processes and an integral part of a Six Sigma quality initiative. DMAIC is an acronym for define, measure, analyze, improve and control.

**Document**

Information and the medium on which it is depicted (carrier medium). A document can be in paper form, electronic, a photograph, a master sample or a combination of these. ISO 9000:2015 lists as examples: Record, specification, procedure document, drawing, report and standard. Several documents (e.g., specifications and records) are also referred to as documentation. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)

**Document control**

Documented procedure for creating, checking, approving, identifying, distributing and updating documents. Document control also includes the identification and distribution of external documents, such as standards, customer specifications or customer drawings. If obsolete documents are stored, they must be identified in such an unambiguous manner that unintended use can be ruled out. Furthermore, not only documents from the management documentation should be subject to document control. Job descriptions, operating instructions, operating manuals for products, specifications, calculation bases or price lists that are used as specifications to fulfill customer requirements should also be taken into consideration. Records represent a special document type. Document control for records includes measures for the identification, storage, protection, retrieval, retention and disposition of records. (cf. ISO 9001:2015)

**Documented information**

Information (including its storage medium) which is subject to the control of documents. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)

**Dodge-Romig sampling plans**

Dodge-Romig sampling plans: Plans for acceptance sampling developed by Harold F. Dodge and Harry G. Romig. Four sets of tables were published in 1940: single sampling lot tolerance tables, double sampling lot tolerance tables, single sampling average outgoing quality limit tables and double sampling average outgoing quality limit tables.

**Dot plot**

Graphics tool (also: one-dimensional dispersion diagram) used to show the acquired measured values on one axis. This is already sufficient to show the first data distributions. Each point is a measured value.

**Dotplot Glossary**

A glossary or guide explaining terms, concepts, or symbols used in dotplots, a type of data visualization.

**Double Root Residual**

A statistical term indicating a complex root or solution in a mathematical equation or model.

**Double Sampling**

A statistical sampling technique involving two sets of samples or inspections to improve accuracy or reliability.

**Down Time**

The period or duration during which a system, machine, or process is non-operational or inactive.

**Downstream**

In a process flow or supply chain, the stage or segment occurring later in the sequence, receiving outputs or products from an earlier stage.

**Downtime**

Time during which a unit is not available due to an internal cause. Note: Uptime and downtime together constitute the complete interval of the time between two consecutive failures for products that are to be maintained, with the uptime possibly containing breaks in operation. (DGQ Volume 11-04:2009)

**DPMO**

Defects per Million Opportunities. Derived from the calculation of the DPO, but extrapolated to one million. The process indicator states how many defects would be made (on the basis of the produced units or sample) in one million opportunities for defects. DPMO DPO * 1.000.000

**DPO**

Defects per Opportunity. Process indicator to measure the probabilities of defects in process steps. Here all the defects that occurred in the produced units or sample are set in relationship to all opportunities that the process/process step has to produce a defect.

**DPO, or Defects per Opportunity**

A measure in Six Sigma representing the number of defects per opportunity for a defect to occur.

**Duane Plot**

A graphical representation used in reliability engineering to visualize failure data or survival analysis.

**Dunnett's Method**

A statistical method used in multiple comparisons to identify differences between treatments or groups while controlling the overall error rate.

**Durbin-Watson Statistic**

A statistical test or measure used in regression analysis to detect autocorrelation in residuals.