### CiCC

There are currently 82 CiCC in this directory beginning with the letter L.

L

**Label**

A descriptive tag or identifier attached to data points, elements, or categories for identification or classification.

**Label Position**

The specific location or placement of labels within a graphical representation or display, aiding in data interpretation.

**Labor as a Percentage Cost**

The percentage of total expenses attributed to labor costs within a business or production process.

**Laboratory**

Facility for performing inspections, tests and calibrations. These can be chemical, metallurgical, geometric, physical, electrical or reliability tests. (On the basis of IATF 16949:2016)

**Laboratory scope**

Laboratory scope: A record containing the specific tests, evaluations and calibrations a laboratory has the ability and competency to perform, the list of equipment it uses, and a list of the methods and standards to which it adheres to each of these.

**Laboratory/lab**

Laboratory/lab: A facility that can perform calibration services, test validation and testing (for example, chemical, metallurgical, dimensional, physical, electrical and reliability testing).

**Lack of Fit**

A statistical term describing the discrepancy or inadequacy of a model in explaining observed variation in data.

**Lag**

A time delay or interval between cause and effect or the occurrence of events in a process or system.

**Laplace Distribution**

A probability distribution describing continuous random variables with symmetric tails around a central location.

**Last off part comparison**

Last off part comparison: A comparison of the last part off a production run with a part off the next production run to verify that the quality level is equivalent.

**Layout inspection**

Layout inspection: The complete measurement of all dimensions shown on a design record.

**LCL**

Lower Control Limit: The lower boundary or limit in a control chart indicating the minimum acceptable level of performance.

**Lead time**

Lead time: The total time a customer must wait to receive a product after placing an order.

**Leadership**

Leadership: The action of leading a group of people or an organization, an essential part of a quality improvement effort.

**Lean**

Lean: A systematic method for waste elimination or minimization (muda) within a manufacturing system without sacrificing productivity.

**Lean management**

Delayering of the hierarchy and improved customer-supplier relationships by streamlining the company and avoiding wasting resources.

**Lean Manufacturing**

A production method emphasizing waste reduction, efficiency, and continuous improvement in manufacturing processes.

**Lean manufacturing/production**

Lean manufacturing/production: An initiative focused on eliminating all waste in manufacturing processes. Principles of lean manufacturing include zero waiting time, zero inventory, scheduling (internal customer pull instead of push system), batch to flow (cut batch sizes), line balancing and cutting actual process times. The production systems are characterized by optimum automation, just-in-time supplier delivery disciplines, quick changeover times, high levels of quality and continuous improvement.

**Lean migration**

Lean migration: The journey from traditional manufacturing methods to one in which all forms of waste are systematically eliminated.

**Lean Six Sigma**

A combination of Lean and Six Sigma methodologies, aiming to reduce waste and variation while improving processes.

**Least Squares**

A statistical method minimizing the sum of squared differences between observed and predicted values in regression analysis.

**Legend**

A key or explanatory guide in a graph or chart providing information about symbols, colors, or elements used.

**Length of Observation**

The duration or period for which observations, data collection, or studies are conducted to gather information or insights.

**Letter Values Glossary**

A compilation or explanation of letter values used in statistical analysis or models for representation or interpretation.

**Level loading**

Level loading: A technique for balancing production throughput over time. Life cycle stages: Design, manufacturing, assembly, installation, operation and shutdown periods of product development

**Leverages**

Statistical measures assessing the impact or influence of individual data points on the overall regression model.

**Leverages PLS**

Measures in Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression assessing the influence or impact of variables on the model's structure.

**Liability for fault**

Damage can be directly assigned to the party that caused it. Obligation to damage compensation on the basis of statutory provisions that require culpable behavior in the form of wrongful intent or negligence.

**Life cycle costs**

Combination of investment and cost accounting that reverts to the concept of the life cycle. Here, the cost-influencing factors are taken into account that often are not included in the cost accounting. A products costs are analyzed across all of its life phases (from the development through to disposal). This results in recommendations for the product design and the procurement, with the objective of optimizing the total costs.

**Likelihood Ratio Test**

A statistical test comparing the likelihood of observed data under different models, assessing their goodness of fit.

**Limiting amount**

Value for the lower limiting value and upper limiting value, which only differ by the sign. (On the basis of DIN 55350-12:1989)

**Limiting amount of deviation**

Amount of the lower limiting deviation or of the upper limiting deviation regardless of whether the amounts are equal or not.

**Limiting deviation**

Lower limiting deviation or also upper limiting deviation. (On the basis of DIN 55350-12)

**Limiting quality**

Quality level at which the lot inspected has a low probability of acceptance. Also referred to as LQ. (On the basis of ISO 3534-2:2013)

**Limiting sample**

Object that physically represents the limiting value of a quality characteristic. (On the basis of DIN 55350-15)

**LIMS**

Laboratory Information Management System. A category of software systems that deals with data processing in chemistry, physics, biology or medical laboratories.

**Line Balancing**

A technique optimizing work distribution among multiple workstations to reduce idle time and improve production efficiency.

**Line Plot**

A graphical representation displaying data points as dots connected by lines, highlighting trends or patterns in the data.

**Linear Constraints**

Constraints or limitations in a mathematical or optimization model represented as linear equations or inequalities.

**Linear Relationship**

A mathematical or statistical relationship between variables that exhibits a constant rate of change or proportionality.

**Linearity**

The property of a relationship or model where changes in one variable cause proportional changes in another variable.

**Link Function**

A mathematical function connecting the mean of a distribution to a linear predictor in statistical modeling.

**Linkage Methods**

Techniques or methodologies used in data analysis or clustering to link or group similar elements or data points together.

**LIRD**

Last Inspection-Record Date: The date marking the last recorded inspection or evaluation of a particular item or asset.

**Listening post**

Listening post: An individual who, by virtue of his or her potential for having contact with customers, is designated to collect, document and transmit pertinent feedback to a central collection authority in the organization.

**LiveLink**

A software or technology facilitating real-time collaboration or sharing of documents, data, or information among users.

**Ljung-Box Q Statistic**

A statistical test assessing whether residuals from a time series model exhibit significant autocorrelation at various lags.

**Lngamma**

A mathematical function representing the logarithm of the gamma function, commonly used in probability and statistics.

**Load-load**

Load-load: A method of conducting single-piece flow in which the operator proceeds from machine to machine, taking the part from one machine and loading it into the next. The lines allow different parts of a production process to be completed by one operator, eliminating the need to move around large batches of work-in-progress inventory.

**Log Likelihood**

A statistical measure quantifying the likelihood of observed data given a specific model or distribution.

**Log Residuals**

Residuals or differences between observed and predicted values in logarithmic space in statistical analysis or modeling.

**Log t**

A mathematical function representing the logarithm of the Student's t-distribution probability density function.

**Logarithm**

A mathematical function determining the power to which a fixed number (base) must be raised to obtain a given value.

**Loge**

Natural Logarithm: A logarithm using the base 'e' (approximately 2.718) often used in mathematical and statistical calculations.

**Logical Analysis**

An analytical method or approach based on reasoning, rational thinking, or deduction to derive conclusions or solve problems.

**Logistic Distribution**

A probability distribution describing continuous random variables between a specified range, often resembling an S-shaped curve.

**Logistic Regression**

A statistical technique used to model the relationship between a binary dependent variable and one or more independent variables.

**Logistic Regression Response Variables**

Variables in logistic regression models representing outcomes or dependent variables in binary or categorical form.

**Logistics quality**

Ability to deliver and delivery reliability: The customer receives the right products in the right quantity at the right place and right time.

**Loglogistic Distribution**

A probability distribution model with two shape parameters, often used in survival analysis or modeling extreme events.

**Lognormal Distribution**

A probability distribution characterized by its logarithm being normally distributed, frequently used in financial modeling and natural phenomena.

**Lorenz curve**

Graphical representation of statistical distributions and illustration of the extent of inequality. It was developed by Max Otto Lorenz.

**Lost customer analysis**

Lost customer analysis: Analysis conducted to determine why a customer or a class of customers was lost.

**Lot**

Lot: 1) A defined quantity of product accumulated under conditions considered uniform for sampling purposes. 2) Items constituting a defined quantity of uniform product for purposes of proceeding collectively through a process.

**Lot tolerance percentage defective (LTPD)**

Lot tolerance percentage defective (LTPD): Expressed in percentage defective, the poorest quality in an individual lot that should be accepted. Note: LTPD is used as a basis for some inspection systems and is commonly associated with a small consumer risk.

**Lot, batch**

Lot, batch: A definite quantity of some product manufactured under conditions of production that are considered uniform.

**LOV chart**

Flow chart with assignment to the organizational unit. The direct interface to the process customer (line of visibility) is distinctly visible. The LOV chart also shows which organizational unit deals with which process step.

**Lower Control Limit**

The lower boundary or limit in a control chart, representing the minimum acceptable level of performance or quality.

**Lower control limit (LCL)**

Lower control limit (LCL): Control limit for points below the central line in a control chart.

**Lower limiting deviation**

Lower limiting value minus the reference value. (On the basis of DIN 55350-12)

**Lower Specification Limit**

The lower acceptable threshold for a product or process specified by customer requirements or standards.

**LOWESS**

Locally Weighted Scatterplot Smoothing: A method for creating a smooth curve or trendline through scatterplot data.

**Ludwig-Erhard-Preis**

The Ludwig-Erhard-Prize is a German quality prize for outstanding achievements in competition which is awarded annually by the Ludwig-Erhard-Preis Auszeichnung für Spitzenleistungen im Wettbewerb e.V. (ILEP) initiative. It was presented for the first time in 1997. The rating systems structure is similar to that of the European Quality Award. The Ludwig-Erhard-Prize fills the gap between individual national prizes in Germany and the EEA. This award bears the name of the German minister of economic affairs and later federal chancellor Ludwig Erhard (1897 1977), the Vater des Wirtschaftswunders, or leader of Germanys postwar economic recovery.